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浅谈英语课堂教学的导入

来源:    作者:徐敏浏览次数: 次  发布时间:2004-07-28 17:58:00

              

[摘要]  导入是为新课的教学作铺垫和准备。恰当的导入能激发学生的学习兴趣,达到理想的教学效果。本文结合教学实践,介绍了情景、直观、音乐、故事四种导入法

[关键词] 导入新课 激发兴趣 提高效率

  

    良好的开端是成功的一半(Well begun is half done)。写文章要有精彩的开头,让人一看就被深深地吸引住,课堂教学也是这样。开场白的好坏往往直接影响课的教学效果,所以说课堂教学导入是英语教学过程中非常重要的一步。一堂课如果导入得当,就能直接吸引学生,引起学生的注意,从而极大地调动学生学习的积极性,使课堂气氛变得轻松活泼,提高课堂效率。因此,我们应应用各种导入手段,激发学生学习的兴趣,使学生能主动参与教学过程。

一、情景导入

情景是语言发挥其交际功能的场合,它是揭示语言表达意义的基本因素之一。因此,在呈现新材料之前,创设与之相一致的情景,使学生在真实的或模拟的交际情景中更好地理解语言材料传递的信息,深刻领悟语言材料的交际功能。在设置情景、导入新课的过程中,教师要结合教学内容,将语言结构、语言功能和语言情景有机地结合起来,使学生在一定的语境中感知、理解新语言材料的意义、功能及作用,理解具体情景中语言所传递的信息。

青少年活泼好动,模仿能力强,生动形象的情景能充分调动学生学习的积极性,让学生轻松自如地进入新课学习。高中英语教材的对话多出现在一定的直观情景中。如In the labAt the doctor’sAt the shopDisneyland (asking the way)等,教师可预先请几位基础好的学生做准备,然后在授课时在教室设置一定的场景,并请这些同学进行表演,同时把相应的新词汇、新语言点呈现在黑板上。这样,既训练了学生的语言表达能力,又满足了学生的表演欲望,而且通过表演,把要学的课文内容以生动逼真的形象表现在学生面前,使他们置身于课文的情景中,自然地进入新课学习。

又如教授First Aid时,我出示了四幅图,让学生对图上所设置的情景进行设想,该如何进行急救:

1. If you see a person was knocked by a car, what should you do?

2. If you see a drowning boy, what should you do?

3. If you see a child was bitten by a dog, what first air will you give him / her?

4. If you see a person cut his / her finger and it was bleeding badly, what should you do?

学生们结合自己的生活常识,积极发言。虽然有的答案不完整,有的不是很正确,但教师已达到了教学的目的,引导学生“入境”,这就是情景导入法的教学目的。“入境”才能“生趣”,才能使学生身临其境,很快进入学习状态,在不知不觉中获得知识,在潜移默化中受到教育。

二、直观导入

直观导入法是指通过具体的实物、图片、照片、幻灯片、录像、VCDCAI课件等手段呈现教学内容,使学生利用外语与客观事物建立直接联系,以培养外语思维能力。师生按照直观教具提供的情景,通过合理的联想、想象和推理,进行一系列的问答、讨论和探究。由于直观教具真实、形象鲜明,容易激发学生的求知欲,引发学生的直接兴趣,有利于学生更深刻地感知和准确、牢固地记忆所学的知识。常用的方法有:

1. 实物导入

实物是最常见的直观教具。教师可利用那些易于准备和便于携带的实物,充分利用教室里的人和物,密切结合教材内容,巧设情景进行教学。实物导入直观、具体,使学生易于理解和掌握外语材料,加速用外语理解和表达思想的能力,同时还能活跃课堂气氛,激发学生学习兴趣和提高学习积极性。

如教学China Daily一课时,拿出一份China Daily并问学生:

T: Do you know the name of this newspaper?

S: Yes. It’s China Daily.

T: Have you ever read it?

S: Yes. I read it sometimes.

T: What do you think of this newspaper?

S1: It’s useful to my English.

S2: It’s interesting. It also helps to enlarge my knowledge.

T: What sections are there in China Daily?

S: News about at home and abroadSports Newsa lot of advertisements and so on.

T: Would you like to know about the newspaper China Daily?  

    学生们齐声回答“Yes.”这样激起了学生兴趣,活跃了课堂气氛,又自然而然地呈现了教学内容。

又如教授CoinCollecting Stamps, The necklace等,教师都可用实物导入教学。

2. 图片导入

图片导入是利用照片、挂图、课文插图或课文前面彩页等,通过对图片的描述、问答和教师的导语,逐步引入本课的话题,让学生适度了解话题的内容,易激发学生的学习动力,能使其产生阅读课文以了解信息的愿望。

SEFC 1A Lesson 18 The Green Hills of Tangsa的插图,可作如下导入:

T: Please look at the picture. What can you see?

S: Two women , some young trees and many big trees on the hills.

T: Can you guess what nationality the women are?

S: May be Indian.

T: How do you know?

S: From their clothes.

T: od, you are very clever. And then what are they doing?

S: They are planting trees.

T: What’ the use of the trees?

S1: To make paper; to make furniture.

S2: They are used for firewood.

S3: To give us shade and fresh air. .

S4: To keep the soil; to keep the balance of the nature and so on.

    在这热烈活跃的课堂氛围中,老师接着说:“Ok. Tree is really very helpful to man. Today we’re ing to read a true story happened in Tangsa Village in northern India. In the past people there cut down the trees and there were almost no trees left. Later a forest programme was carried out by teams of women in this village. And the village has taken on a new look. Let’s and visit the village now.”

   又如教学A Farming Pioneer一课时,我拿出《中华英才》画册,向学生展示一幅朴素农民的彩照,让学生猜一猜他是谁,他有何伟大成就?这一情景马上把学生的注意力吸引过来,学生们不约而同地回答:袁隆平。有学生还补充说:“He is the father of modern agriculture.”谈到袁隆平的成就,学生们非常自豪地说:“Without his great invention, many people would hungry.”借这个话题,我就接着说:“Yes. He is a great man in modern times. Today we are ing to know another great man, one farming pioneer. He wrote a famous book called Qi Min Yao Shu. Do you know who he was?” “Yes, Jia Si Xie.”学生马上作除了反应。“Ok. Now open you book and turn to page 38. Let’s learn more information about him.”进而自然地过度到课文。

   在组织教学Britain and IrelandCanadaNew YorkAustraliaNew Zealand等时,教师可利用地图,照片等,要求学生观察并归纳它的地理位置,人口等,进行导入。图片导入简便、形象、生动,不仅能培养学生的形象思维能力,还能激发学生的求知欲,让他们感到不单为学英语而学英语,而是把学英语作为一种获得更多知识的手段。重要的是这种导入法对学生很好地理解课文内容有很大的帮助,亦可起到事半功倍的良好效果。

3. 影像导入

影像导入是运用录象,投影,幻灯,CAI课件等电教教学手段进行教学。影像集声音、图像和动画于一体,能为学生创造一种悦目、悦耳、悦心的英语交际情景,它形象生动,声像结合,图文并茂,进行影像导入能充分调动学生的多种感觉器官参与学习,调节学生的情绪,提高学生的兴趣,为下一步学习作好铺垫和准备。

如在上SEFC Book 2A Lesson 2 Walt Disney时,先放了动画片米老鼠和唐老鸭的一个片段,学生的注意力马上被吸引过来,大家饶有兴趣地观看着。播放完后,我就问:“Are Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck lovely?”“Who created these two cartoon characters?”“Ok. I think you’ll get more information about Walt Disney after reading the passage.”于是,学生们都迫不及待地打开书,兴致勃勃地阅读“Walt Disney”。又如教学Charlie Chaplin时,直接放映了他主演的电影片段,学生被卓别林幽默滑稽的表演深深地吸引,在笑过之余非常迫切地希望了解Charlie Chaplin的有关背景知识,起到了事半功倍的成效。

我在引导学生学习SEFC Book 1A Unit 7 Earthquakes时,把台湾地震的录像放给学生看,让学生有身临其境之感。在放录像的同时,把课文中的语言知识用幻灯片放在银幕上,学生看后,思维被激活了。然后,我就采取接龙的办法,让学生们讲一句与电视内容和提供的语言知识有关的话,整个导入就是在这样热烈的气氛中进行。在这种情境中,学生不知不觉地进入了课文学习。

在教授SportsSaving the earthHurricaneA tale of two citiesBody languageGymnasticsA famous Detective等课文时,教师都可利用影像导入。由于具有直观灵活、声情并茂,影像导入更能激起学生主动参与学习的积极性,开拓学生的思维,在轻松愉快的氛围中掌握语言知识,提高听说读写的能力。

三、音乐导入

音乐能表达情感,描绘千姿百态的世界。课堂上使用音乐有助于学习的气氛。一种轻松的气氛能促成一种全神贯注的学习气氛,一种鼓励学生积极思维的气氛。音乐能激发学生的学习动力,利用音乐的想象空间开拓语言思路,丰富教学形式,活跃课堂气氛,还可以启发学生的美感。

音乐深受广大学生的喜爱,将音乐导入恰当地引入英语课堂教学是拨动情感之弦、激发学生学习兴趣的有效手段。如教学SEFC Book 2B Lesson 82 Music一课时,先播放几段音乐,有古典音乐(classical music),有爵士乐(jazz music),流行音乐(pop music),民乐(folk music)等。在学生欣赏音乐的同时,我就进行一些引导:“What kind of music is it?”、“What is the difference between old music and modern music?”、“Which music would you prefer?”、“Who is your favorite singer? Why?”、“What do you think of music?”这堂课就在音乐的烘托下,自然地进入新课的教学,而且回答“What do you think of music?”这一问题时 ,学生们还进行了发散性思维。

S1 Music is beautiful. It can make life happy.

S2 Music can make me excited. It does od to my study.

S3 Music can also make me sad.

S4 I can hardly imagine what life would be like without music.

     又如教授Country Music Lesson 41时,先播放了Celine Dion 演唱的歌曲“My heart will on”,其优美的旋律深深吸引了学生,有的学生还轻声地哼唱。学生欣赏歌曲的时候,我用投影呈现了be familiar with pop music successful make a record broadcast on the radio等新词汇。接着又播放歌曲Take me home country road,然后抛出问题“What’s the name of this song? Who sang? ( John Denver)、“Have you heard of him?”进而转入新课。“Today, we’re ing to talk about John Denver. Listen to the tape carefully, and try to find out some information about Denver.

      音乐的烘托,激发了学生的情感,使他们立刻进入了意境,充满了想象,启迪了思维,从而达到了满意的教学效果。

四、故事导入

故事导入常用于故事性或记述人物的课文。教师可结合教材选择有关联的故事,也可就课文进行适当的改编,内容可增删。讲故事时尽量用学生以前学过的词语和句型,当学生听懂老师讲的故事时,教师顺势导入课文,真可谓顺水推舟,一帆风顺。

通过讲故事来导入新课能马上引起学生的注意,激发学生急欲了解课文的求知欲望。如教学SEFC Book 1B Lesson 81课时,我进行了以下导入。

T:  First, Let me tell you a story.  One day, a girl was reading a book by the window. A man was doing some repairs on the roof. She heard the man shouting ‘look out’, the girl stuck her head out of the window. Just then a board fell from above. The girl looked up, half in anger, half in fright. “Didn’t you hear me calling ‘look out’?” the man asked. “Yes, and that’s what I did.” The girl replied.

Class, why did the girl stick her head out of the window?

( Did she understand the meaning “look out”? )

Do you know?                               (S: Be careful)

T: Yes, you’ve t it. In fact, not only the girl but also many people find idioms and useful expressions are hard to learn. Here’s a student named Yang Mei, who also has the same problem. Now she is having a talk with her teacher Sara about learning English. Let’s listen to the dialogue between her and her teacher Sara.

学生全神贯注地听着故事,在老师的引导下不知不觉地参与到学习中来,从而使教学自然地进行着。

   在高中英语教材中,有许多课文是关于人物的文章。在教学中,教师可通过讲述该人物的生平或该人物的趣事呈现新课内容,也会达到较好的教学效果。例如,在学习SEFC Book 2B Albert Einstein时,我简要地介绍了爱因斯坦。

Albert Einstein, the greatest scientist in the 20th century, was famous for his theories of relativity. He was born in Germany, but he took American nationality. He began to study in Switzerland when he was seventeen. After he received a doctor’s degree, and later the Nobel Prize for Physics, he and his family left Europe for the USA. Although he was very famous, he lived a simple life. He took no interest in money. He often gave lectures free. All through his life he liked not only physics, but also music. It was said that he found in music the peace which were missing in a world full of wars and killings. Ok, if you want to know him further, let’s come to the text 这样,就自然地过度到新课的传授。

又如在学习SEFC Book 1B Abraham Lincoln前,我给学生先讲述了这样一个故事:Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States was not very handsome, and he knew. One day, Lincoln was walking in the street when he was stopped by an ugly man. The man had a pistol in his hand. He aimed at Lincoln’s nose. Lincoln was very surprised, but he pretended to be calm. He asked the man. “What do you want, sir?” “I have promised myself,” said the man. “If I find a man who is uglier than I. I will kill him.” Lincoln looked at the man’s face carefully and said eagerly, “Please take aim at me, sir. If I were uglier than you, I would not want to live.” 学生们被林肯的幽默所吸引,从而激起了对此课文的学习兴趣。

     SEFC教材中,教学课文Karl MarxA freedom fighterDisabilitiesMadame Curie My teacher等时,教师都可通过故事导入新课,既能顺利地完成教学任务又能引发学生学习英语的兴趣,而且能开拓学生的知识面。

     导入是教师在开始新课之前的热身运动。导入的过程为新知识搭桥、铺路,是引发学生学习兴趣,诱发求知欲望、启发积极思维并为新知识呈现的准备过程。巧妙的导入有助于学生对新课的理解和吸收。英语课堂教学的导入多种多样,教师可根据不同的题材,不同的内容采用不同的导入方法,但其目的只有一个:激发学生的学习兴趣,提高教学效率,使学生积极地学习和使用知识。因此,导入不宜费时过多,要有较强的目的性,更要具有趣味性和启发性。教师精心的导入必能使英语教学充满生机,充满活力,从而大大提高课堂教学的效率。

 

 

参考文献

  蒋敏红  《浅谈英语课堂中新语言项目的呈现》,中小学外语教学,2000

  刘建华  《manbetx首页英语创新教法》,学苑出版社,1999 

 


         

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